History of South America

History of South America

From the Andes to the shores of the Amazon rainforest and from the Pacific to the Atlantic – the 12-state territory of the South American continent can accommodate the full spectrum of nature. The most popular tourist destinations in South America include Brazil, Chile, Argentina and Peru, where the traveler can experience everything from city vacations to wonderful nature trips or get acquainted with the indigenous cultures of South America.

On the Beach Ball South America page, we present South American countries and travel destinations. Our destination guides provide information on all the most interesting resorts in South America.


Andes, Angel Falls and tropical Caribbean islands – Venezuela’s nature is diverse. Located in the northern part of South America, Venezuela is one of the most unknown travel destinations on the continent.

From the Andes to the Caribbean

The northeasternmost parts of the Andes extend as far as Venezuela and the highest peak in the country is about five kilometers high Pico Bolivar. Located in the granite highlands of Guyana in southern Venezuela, Angel Falls are the tallest waterfalls in the world. The water masses plunge down from a height of 979 meters.

Venezuela’s climate is mostly tropical hot and humid, but the mountainous areas are cooler. The majority of Venezuela’s population lives in coastal cities and large parts of the hinterland have been left uninhabited as a result of migration. Venezuela’s specialties include the country’s own time zone, which has an official time 4.5 hours behind UCT time.

With one stopover to Venezuela

The Venezuelan capital Caracas can be reached from Finland with a single stopover, for example via Frankfurt, Germany. Flights take 15-25 hours, depending on the connections, and ticket prices start at around a thousand euros.


Prehistory: The way and time of settlement of the continent have not been finally clarified (possibly via the Central American land bridge). Many dates are also controversial, some are based only on estimates. New research methods and sites point to ever earlier periods of time: The traces of settlement in the Serra da Capivara National Park in northeastern Brazil are dated to 50,000 BC. BC (the paintings listed as UNESCO World Heritage Site around 12,000 BC). Also controversial are those dating back to 19,000 BC. Finds from Ayacucho (Peru) dated to the 4th century; the dates from Venezuela between 15,000 and 13,000 BC. Are not yet clearly confirmed. Secure dates are from 11,000 BC. From Monte Verde (Prov. Valdivia, Chile). This site probably shows even older traces of settlement (approx. 30,000 BC), which, however, have not yet been clearly documented. Around 8000 BC Began in the basin of Ayacucho soil and livestock (llamas, guinea pigs), on the northwest coast has been around since the 5th millennium BC. Arable farming (including cotton). The oldest cultures that had their basis in agriculture are those of Huaca Prieta (Northern Peru, 3rd / 2nd millennium BC) and Kotosh in Central Peru. In addition to cotton, important crops were maize, beans, pumpkin and chilli. Stone architectural forms are from the end of the 3rd millennium BC. Known from the north Peruvian coast; the oldest evidence of metalworking comes from the southern highlands (around 1500 BC).

The time of the earliest occurrence of ceramics is disputed. Results from Colombia (San Jacinto: 3750 BC, Monsú: 3350 BC, Puerto Hormiga: 3090 BC) and Ecuador (Valdivia : 3500 BC) are considered certain. The Mina pottery found in northwestern Guyana and the Brazilian state of Pará is dated to around 3000 BC. Dated, but this is still uncertain. From around 1800 BC There are ceramics in the central Andean region, even later in southern Brazil. On its coast there are heaps of mussels and municipal waste known as “sambaqui”, as they were between 5000 and 4000 BC. BC are known for most of the American coastlines, shedding light on the history of human settlement.

According to Countryaah.com, the south of the South American continent (southern Chile, Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego) was populated by nomad groups until it was discovered by the Europeans (verifiable since around 8500 BC); Northwest Argentina and northern Chile were influenced in different ways by the cultural development of the central Andean region (ceramics and cultivation of cultivated plants from around 500 BC). In northwestern Argentina there is evidence of the use of tin bronze in America in the culture of La Aguada.

In the 2nd millennium BC, these processes, some of which were far apart in terms of time and space, emerged. High cultures which – unlike the large-scale Mesoamerican high cultures  - were more regionally fragmented. The culture of Chavín had a far-reaching influence on the Andean high cultures, which reached the peak of their power and civilization development in the great Inca empire.

With the discovery (by Columbus in 1498) and conquest of South America by the Europeans, this development came to an end, but their traditions have entered Latin American culture in a variety of ways. For further history of Latin America.

History of South America

About the author