The main sport practiced in Lima is Soccer, as in the rest of the country. In the mid- nineteenth century, the first soccer teams began to emerge in Peru, which led to the subsequent organization of soccer clubs or the inclusion of this sport in clubs already formed. La Liga Peruana de Fútbol was created on 27 February of the 1912 and beginning one had teams Lima that were reinforced with players’ chalacos “(from the province of El Callao).
Currently, four teams from Lima participate in the First Division of Peru: Alianza Lima, Sporting Cristal, Universidad San Martín de Porres and Universitario de Deportes. Alianza Lima, Sporting Cristal and Universitario de Deportes are considered the most important teams in the country. Between these clubs the superclassic and the modern classic of Peruvian soccer are traditionally disputed, and together they are the most popular in Peru.
The main sports venue in Lima for the practice of soccer is the National Stadium of Peru, inaugurated in 1952, which has a maximum capacity for 45,574 spectators. Other important football stadiums are: the Alejandro Villanueva Stadium(headquarters of the Alianza Lima Club), the Monumental Stadium (headquarters of the University Sports Club), the Municipal Stadium of Chorrillos, the National University of San Marcos Stadium and the San Martín Stadium. of Porres.
Other sports less practiced in the city, but no less important, are: Athletics, Triathlon, Badminton, Cycling, Horse Riding, Futsal, Karate, Paleta Fronton, Paragliding, Rugby, Squash, Surfing, Tennis, Table tennis, Shooting, Triathlon and sailing. For the practice of these other sports, the city of Lima has: the Mariscal Cáceres Coliseum (owned by the Peruvian Army), the Eduardo Dibós Coliseum, the Amauta Coliseum, the Campo de Marte (owned by the Peruvian Sports Institute), the Terrazas de Miraflores Tennis Club, the Lawn Tennis Club of the Exhibition (headquarters of the Davis Cup Team of Peru), the Lima Cricket and Football Club and the Athletics Stadium of the National Sports Village. Also noteworthy is the fact that the city itself has 7 golf courses and the Monterrico Racecourse in the Surco district (owned by the Jockey Club of Peru).
The city has hosted various important events, in Lima four editions of the Copa América were played (1927, 1935, 1939, 1953 and the final in 2004), and the 2005 U-17 Soccer World Cup. In January 2009, the first date of the World Qualifying Seriesof Surf was held in Lima, and in November the sixth date of the ASP World Tour will be held in the female branch.
Regarding multidisciplinary competitions, Lima hosted the II Bolivarian Games in 1947 and the IV South American Games in 1990. Currently the city of Lima is a candidate to host the XVII Pan American Games in 2015, the final verdict will be announced between July or August of the 2009 by PASO. There is also talk of a possible candidacy to host the Olympic Games in 2020 or 2024.
Parks and gardens
The largest parks in Lima are located on the outskirts of the city and are known as Parks Zonales, while in the historic center are the Reserve Park, the Park of the Exhibition, the Champ de Mars and University Park. The Reserve Park has the largest pool complex in the world, known as “The Magic Water Circuit”. Several other important parks are found in various parts of the city, such as Bosque el Olivar, Parque Reducto No. 2, Pantanos de Villa, Parque de las Leyendas, Malecón de Miraflores and Parque Kennedy, to name a few..
From the middle of the 20th century, Lima began to receive important contingents of people coming from the interior of the country. The rural exodus intensified between the 1950s and 1960s, and its magnitude contributed to decisively change the ethnic composition of the Peruvian capital, since the new human settlements that emerged were mainly made up of residents of the interior of the country, mostly ethnic groups. indigenous. The magnitude of the problem of informal settlements in Peru has contributed to the fact that this Andean country has been one of the Latin American countries subject to the greatest number of sociological investigations on shantytowns with precarious housing, becoming the phenomenon of Sub-housing object of study by various universities, social scientists and non-governmental organizations. Over time, the rural characteristics of the conglomerate of people living in informal settlements have diminished, as the new generations have already grown up in the city and have adopted urban customs. Currently, the growth of the city is not based so much on immigration from the countryside, but on the natural growth of the population of the peripheral neighborhoods.
Despite progressively improving health and access to public services indices in the most impoverished areas of the city, levels of social inequality persist. although they are certainly decreasing due to the economic growth experienced by the country.
Lima is the main cultural center of Peru. It houses 28 universities, among which is the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Dean of America, the oldest in the continent, founded on May 12, 1551, leading to the celebration of the Peruvian University Day.
Other state universities have an important role in teaching and research, such as the National Engineering University, founded in 1876, the National University of Callao, the Federico Villarreal National University, the La Molina National AgrarianUniversity and the only University dedicated to the training of Teachers., the National University of Education Enrique Guzmán y Valle, known as “La Cantuta” located in Chosica and founded on July 6, 1822 by the Liberator Don José de San Martín, thus giving rise to the celebration of Teacher’s Day, for being the date of foundation of the first School of Preceptors in Peru.
The Pontifical Catholic University of Peru is the first private university in the country (founded in 1917). Other university institutions located in the city are the Inca Garcilaso de la Vega University (which was founded on December 21, 1964 by the AIPP Association of the Greater National University of San Marcos), ESAN University, the University of Piura, the University of Pacific University, the University of Lima, the Peruvian University Cayetano Heredia, the Peruvian University of Applied Sciences, the Southern Scientific University, the San Ignacio de Loyola University, the Ricardo Palma University, among others.